强迫劳动是现代奴隶制的一种形式，也是供应链中最恶劣的人类剥削形式之一。 识别和找到证据也可能非常困难。 了解强迫劳动的指标以及为什么组织使用它们来了解强迫劳动风险。
The indicators of forced labour
u003cstrongu003eWhat is this? u003c/strongu003eWhen an employer or third party, such as a recruitment agent, takes advantage of people in vulnerable situations. For example, migrant workers who don’t speak the local language or understand local laws and regulations.rnrnThese characteristics make some people more vulnerable and put some workers at greater risk of forced labour than others. Explore our u003ca href=u0022https://www.sedex.com/covid19-further-reading/the-businesses-and-people-most-vulnerable-to-health-and-economic-impacts-of-covid-19/u0022u003elist of vulnerable workersu003c/au003e to learn more.rnrnu003cstrongu003eExample:u003c/strongu003e A company in the Middle East has employment contracts containing an opt-out clause for the national weekly working hours limit.rnrnThe contracts are in Arabic only, despite a large proportion of the company’s workers being from countries where Arabic is not a common language. These migrant workers may not be aware that they have consented to working hours above the national limit.
u003cstrongu003eWhat is this? u003c/strongu003eWorking conditions and accommodation for workers that are degrading, dirty, hazardous, or otherwise sub-standard.rnrnu003cstrongu003eExample: u003c/strongu003eA mining company does not provide all their workers with necessary safety gear. Workers are expected to provide their own, but this safety gear is very expensive and workers struggle to afford fully certified equipment. This results in many using makeshift safety gear that does not protect them properly.rnrnIf this indicator is found alongside a worker’s freedom to leave employment (with reasonable notice) being restricted, the worker could be in a forced labour situation. However, sometimes workers will accept poor living or working conditions out of desperation to secure a job.
u003cstrongu003eWhat is this? u003c/strongu003eWorkers incur or inherit debts to employers or agents, and are bound to the employer or agent until a debt is considered paid. Employers may even continue adding costs – such as for food or accommodation – to a worker’s debt. This can leave a worker with very reduced “take-home” wages, and/or make it impossible for them to clear their debt.rnrnu003cstrongu003eExample:u003c/strongu003e A migrant worker borrows money from a recruitment agent to secure a job in another country and pay for transport to it. This sum is added against their name as a debt, and the worker cannot leave their job until it is paid.
u003cstrongu003eWhat is this? u003c/strongu003eThe failure to deliver what was promised to a worker, whether that promise was made verbally or in writing. Any situation that has removed a worker’s free and informed consent – if they had known the truth about a job, they wouldn’t have taken it – is deceptive.rnrnu003cstrongu003eExample:u003c/strongu003e A company promises workers that they will be going to a particular work site and given clean, secure, private accommodation. The employment contracts that workers sign do not contain the full address of this site or any other site. The workers are taken to a different work site with dirty, unsafe, shared accommodation.
u003cstrongu003eWhat is this? u003c/strongu003eWorkers must work for hours and/or days at a time that go beyond the national legal limits or collectively agreed limits. They might be denied breaks, or may have to work beyond these limits to earn the minimum wage.rnrnu003cstrongu003eExample:u003c/strongu003e A work site’s records show that the total hours worked per week regularly exceed 70 hours for a majority of the workforce, often with no rest day. The national legal limit for weekly working hours is 50.rnrnExcessive overtime is very common in some industries – for example, u003ca href=u0022https://www.sedex.com/managing-supply-chain-risks-in-apparel-manufacturing/u0022u003ein apparel manufacturingu003c/au003e several of the top-producing countries indicate as extremely high-risk for this indicator in u003ca href=u0022https://www.sedex.com/our-services/risk-assessment-tool/u0022u003eour risk toolu003c/au003e. Excessive overtime on its own does not constitute forced labour, but such situations would become cases of forced labour if workers did not consent to overtime, and were threatened or disadvantaged if they asked to work regular hours.
u003cstrongu003eWhat is this? u003c/strongu003eWorkers are threatened with physical, legal, financial or other consequences if they try to leave a job or refuse sub-standard working conditions. This includes threats made to workers looking to join a trade union, or threats to report undocumented workers to the authorities.rnrnu003cstrongu003eExample:u003c/strongu003e A factory experiencing building structure problems threatens workers with wage deductions and sacking if they do not come to work, even though the factory is dangerous.
u003cstrongu003eWhat is this?u003c/strongu003e Workers are in remote locations without the means to leave, or denied contact with the outside world. Isolation can be geographic, linguistic (workers unable to communicate with those around them), social or cultural.rnrnu003cstrongu003eExample: u003c/strongu003eA palm oil plantation in a remote area can only be reached by boat. Workers are allowed a weekly journey across the river, but the boat does not always turn up each week – or turns up when most workers are out on the plantation.
u003cstrongu003eWhat is this? u003c/strongu003eWorkers are physically or sexually abused. This includes hitting or slapping workers, forcing workers to do jobs outside of their employment contract, touching workers inappropriately without their consent, and forcing workers to take drugs or alcohol.rnrnu003cstrongu003eExample: u003c/strongu003e Supervisors at a factory regularly slap workers who are not meeting production quotas.
u003cstrongu003eWhat is this?u003c/strongu003e Workers cannot enter and exit a worksite or their accommodation freely, or have their movements unreasonably controlled. This includes locking workers in at worksites/accommodation, demanding deposits when workers wish to leave at the end of a shift, and employing security guards to prevent workers from leaving.rnrnThe International Labour Organization recognises that reasonable restrictions include those necessary for workers’ safety and security at worksites.rnrnu003cstrongu003eExample:u003c/strongu003e Workers are locked on site during their shifts at a factory, and only three supervisors have keys to the gates. Workers can ask one of these supervisors to open the gates for them, but if the supervisors refuse workers cannot leave.rnrnRestricted freedom of movement is a strong indicator of forced labour.
u003cstrongu003eWhat is this?u003c/strongu003e Employers are in control of workers’ identity documents – such as passports, ID cards and work visas – and hold them somewhere that workers cannot access freely and independently.rnrnu003cstrongu003eExample:u003c/strongu003e Workers’ passports are kept in a locked safe at a worksite. Only two staff members have a key. Workers must ask one of these staff members to open the safe if they wish to access their passports, and these staff members are not always availablernrnRetaining workers’ identity documents does not on its own constitute forced labour. Employers often rationalise that they are holding passports or other official documents for safekeeping, but workers may not feel comfortable requesting access to their documents, or the process to access their documents is difficult and intimidating.
u003cstrongu003eWhat is this? u003c/strongu003eWages aren’t paid to workers on time or in-full. This includes irregular and delayed wage payments, when workers receive payment in kind (e.g. in accommodation, food, vouchers, or products) that don’t match the amounts deducted for these from their wages, or when workers do not control their own bank accounts.rnrnu003cstrongu003eExample:u003c/strongu003e An employer makes deductions from workers’ pay for food, without their consent or knowledge, and these deductions fluctuate without anybody explaining this to workers.rnrnIrregular or delayed wage payments do not constitute forced labour on their own. But when wages are systematically and deliberately withheld, or if workers fear to leave a job in case they never get these wages, this indicates a significant risk of forced labour.
Sedex has added a 12u003csupu003ethu003c/supu003e indicator of “Management systems failures” to the ILO’s original list of 11. Management systems are critical to ensuring a business complies with the law, including laws on working hours, modern slavery, and employment terms. A failure in management systems can indicate an increased risk of forced labour.rnrnu003cstrongu003eWhat is this?u003c/strongu003e A business does not have effective policies and processes in place to identify and prevent forced labour in their operations and recruitment practices. This can include the absence of policies and processes to help a business make sure they comply with national and international labour laws.rnrnu003cstrongu003eExample: u003c/strongu003eA company uses an employment agency to recruit migrant workers. The company accepts the agency’s claims that the agency has seen all the right paperwork for each worker, and does not conduct their own checks on workers’ ages or work permits.rnrnu003cstrongu003eExample:u003c/strongu003e A company regularly has long shifts and seven-day working weeks, but has no system to check and record whether workers consent to these hours and days.
- 识别运营和供应链中的强迫劳动风险。 对您的工作场所和供应商进行风险评估。 这将帮助您了解自己的供应链，以及高风险国家、部门和工人所在的位置。
- 通过查看您自己工作场所和供应链中的强迫劳动指标来评估这些风险。 根据强迫劳动风险水平确定评估活动的优先级，例如进行审计或深入调查。
- 采取行动保护受害者。 如果您怀疑或发现强迫劳动，保护和支持潜在受害者是解决这个问题的第一个关键步骤。 除此之外，您还应该收集证据并记录调查结果以支持进一步调查。
- 嵌入良好实践，并检查您自己的工作场所和供应商的站点是否具有强大的劳动力管理系统 – 帮助企业确保工人良好条件的政策和流程。
- 开展培训，以建立您的知识，提高认识，并培训团队（包括供应商）有关强迫劳动的知识。 包括关于强迫劳动风险更大的国家、部门、商品类型、商业模式和弱势工人类型的培训。
- 与供应商合作解决问题。 这些指标中的每一个都引起了工人的关注，即使您不怀疑或识别强迫劳动。 与供应商合作，了解这些情况的原因，并共同努力制定互惠互利的解决方案。